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Brown trout
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Brown trout

Brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a species  in the salmon family (Salmonidae). The brown trout has a wide  natural distribution from Iceland and the northern coasts of Europe in the north, southwards  to countries fronting the Mediterranean Sea, the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and Algeria in North Afrika. The range extends from the Atlantic drainage east to the northern slopes of the Himalayas.

This predatory fish variesmuch in size, colouration and habitat use.  It includes both purely freshwater populations and anadromous forms. Its colonization ability and  highly fragmented distribution pattern with populations living in physically isolated habitats, has contributed to a very high level of genetic variability in this species.    The fine-spotted brown trout in some lakes on the Hardangervidda, is a morph with a distinct pigmentation pattern inherited in a simple mendelian pattern. Another distinct morph termed marmorated brown trout is found in River Otra.

Brown trout is the only trout species in Norway, and it is widely distributed in rivers and lakes along the coast. The species also lives in high mountain areas such as the Hardangervidda plateau at 1300 m a sl., where archaeological excavations have shown that the brown trout was present in the large lakes already about 5000 years ago.  

Different populations of brown trout may occur in fresh water and salt water.  Freshwater populations spend their entire lives in fresh water, while sea trout migrate to sea as smolts to salt-water feeding grounds. Often sea trout return to freshwater to overwinter either as immature fish or to spawn.

Individuals in some populations of sea trout may make long migrations, around the North Sea for example.  But most often migrations are short and limited to 20 km seaward from the river mouth.

Impacted by sea lice

In many areas, populations of sea trout are severely affected by sea lice and are therefore reduced in abundance and biomass. In the Hardangerfjord, an area with abundant fish-farming operations, years with intense rates of infection by sea lice have been documented. High rates of lice infection, far above what is needed to kill the host, have also been observed at other Norwegian waters.

Hereditary differences

Due to the fragmented distribution with populations inhabiting different enviroments, trout populations tend to develop different genetic characteristics such as growth patterns, colouration and susceptibility to parasites. For example, sea trout from Simavassdraget in the inner parts of the Hardangerfjord  tend to grow faster and to be more heavily infected with lice than trout from Guddalselva in the central part of the fjord.


Facts about trout

Latin name: Salmo trutta L.
Common names: brown trout, sea trout, trout
Family: Salmonidae
Maximum size: Approx. 12-14 kg
Lifespan: Typically 5 years, but can live over 30 years
Habitat: Running water, lakes, sea water
Main spawning habitat: Running water
Spawning season: from October to November, later in some places
Common diet: Insect larvae (in freshwater); wide diet including crustaceans, sprat and herring (in sea water)
Predators: Pollack, Cod
Special feature: Large genetic diversity, large variation in colour and pigmentation