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Models that include a fine scale representation of the physical features of the ecosystem as well as the biogeochemistry and the main components of the ecosystems are referred to as End to end models (E2E).

The NORWECOM.E2E is under development to become an end to end model of the Norwegian Sea ecosystem. The model is a merger of two models, the NORWECOM model for the lower trophic levels and nutrient cycling (Aksnes et al. 1995, Skogen et al. 2007) and different individual based models developed initially for fish (Huse and Giske 1998, Strand et al. 2002, Huse et al. 2004, Huse and Ellingsen 2008) and zooplankton (Huse 2005, Samuelsen et al. 2009).

These models have now been integrated into a fully coupled model system illustrated below. The components that are presently implemented are delineated with full lines while the components that are planned implemented are indicated with broken compartment lines.

Cited literature

  • Aksnes DL, Ulvestad KB, Baliño BM, Berntsen J, Egge JK, Svendsen E. 1995. Ecological modelling in coastal waters: Towards predictive physical-chemical-biological simulation models. Ophelia 41:5-36.
  • Huse G. 2005. Artificial evolution of Calanus' life history strategies under different predation levels. 11:19.
  • Huse G, Ellingsen IH. 2008. Capelin migrations and climate change - a modelling analysis. Climatic Change 87:177-191.
  • Huse G, Giske J. 1998. Ecology in Mare Pentium: an individual-based spatio-temporal model for fish with adapted behaviour. Fisheries Research 37:163-178.
  • Huse G, Johansen GO, Gjøsæter H, Bogstad B. 2004. Studying spatial and trophic interactions between capelin and cod using individual-based modelling. ICES Journal of Marine Science 61:1201-1213.
  • Samuelsen A, Huse G, Hansen C. 2009. Shelf recruitment of Calanus finmarchicus off the west coast of Norway: role of physical processes and timing of diapause termination. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 386:163-180.
  • Skogen MD, Budgell WP, Rey F. 2007. Interannual variability in Nordic seas primary production. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64:889-898.
  • Strand E, Huse G, Giske J. 2002. Artificial evolution of life history and behavior. The American Naturalist 159:624-644.



Models are by definition simplified representations of nature. Still they can give us valuable information about the physical, biological and population dynamic processes in the ocean. And in combination models can help us to gain insight and quantify the dynamics of the complex ecosystems.