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Tore Kristiansen

Telefon: 941 53 631

Arbeider med

Leder for Forskningsgruppe Dyrevelferd

Prosjektleder NFR prosjekt NEWCOPE

Curriculum Vitae

Born 12.11.1959, Molde, Norway

Current position and research activities
Principal scientist , PhD, Research group leader (1111)  Research Group Animal Welfare (since 2007), Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway.

Coordinator and project leader (recent  and ongoing projects):

• NEWCOPE Coping with new environments and production methods: Animal welfare and stress biology applied to modern fish farming. RCN project 2017-2020
• REGFISHWEL Effects of the Regulatory Framework on Fish Welfare and Health. WP- leader, RCN Project 2017-2018
•  COPEWELL - A new integrative framework for the study of fish welfare based on the concepts of allostasis, appraisal and coping styles (2011-2015, Cordinator)  EU-FP7  Project (no. 265957), 17 partners (www.copewell.eu )
• Monitoring of fish welfare (2012- 2015) financed by IMR/Department of fisheries and coastal affairs)
• SMARTSUB - Smart submergence of sea cages with salmon and cod to improve profitability, minimise environmental impact and ensure welfare (2010-2014), in cooperation with Sintef FH), Project in CREATE (Center for research based innovation in aquaculture technology), coordinator Sintef FH, RCN - Centre for research based innovation. 
• SALMOWA Overall Welfare Assessment of Atlantic Salmon (2010-2013, in cooperation with Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Sciences, Lifestock Research, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands). Financed by RCN (www.imr.no/salmowa).
• WELFARE-TOOLS New tools for overall assessment of rearing environment, stress level, and fish welfare in Atlantic salmon cage farms (Coop. NOFIMA, UiO, NTNU, + industry partners, 2009-2010)”. Funded by RCN and the Norwegian Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund (www.imr.no/welfaremeter ) .
• MORECARE-Motivational states and coping ability as operational welfare indicators in farmed fish (2006-2008(2010), in cooperation with NOFIMA Marin. Financed by the Research Council of Norway.
• SUBFISH- Biological criteria for of submergence of fish” (2007-2010, in cooperation with Sintef FH), Project in CREATE (Center for research based innovation in aquaculture technology), leader Sintef FH, RCN - Centre for research based innovation. 
• PHYSBEWEL - Physiological and behavioural indicators of welfare assessment for aquaculture and fisheries (2007-2010). RCN Strategic Institute Project.
• FASTFISH – On farm assessment of stress level in farmed fish (2006-2009). EU - FP6 SSP project.  Coordinator and subproject leader
• FISH SCHOOL- Learning ability, cognitive, capacity and welfare of farmed fish (2007-2008). Financed by the Research Council of Norway (RCN),

Møre og Romsdal Regional College (1978-79): Mathematics and informatics. University of Bergen (1980-87 and 1994-98): Biology (basic biology and physiology, marine ecology, marine and fisheries biology), Chemistry, Mathematics and Statistics, Informatics, Oceanography. Cand. Scient (Master).  Institute of Fisheries Biology, University of Bergen (1987). “Growth and feeding of ranched and wild cod in Heimarkspollen, Austevoll”. PhD (Dr.Scient.), University of Bergen (2001) (incl. studies in fish behavior, multivariate statistics).  Title PhD thesis: “Stage and size dependent mortality of reared and wild cod (Gadus morhua L.)”. 

Employment, project management and participation
Employed as full time researcher at Institute of Marine Research since July 1987. Project leader in multiple projects (see below). Research Group leader of IMR, Research Group: Animal Welfare since 2007.
Director of Bjørnsund Camp School – Nov 2014-Nov 2015 (wwww.bjornsundleirskole.no)

  • Project leader or participation in earlier National research projects and EU-projects:
  • Participation BEHAVEGENES - Behavioural and genomic characteristics of farmed Atlantic salmon related to robustness, welfare, production performance and heritability.  RCN project 2014-2017.
  • Participated in several cod-enhancement projects in western Norway (1984-1997) Programs (Utsetting av torsk i Austevoll, Cod in Fjord, PUSH (National program for development of sea ranching).
  • Project leader: Program: Development of marine aquaculture in Ytre-Namdal, Nord-Trøndelag county (several regional and national projects (financed by Norwegian Regional Fund, Norwegian Fisheries Research Council (Projects N1824-02 and N1824-03) and Fish Farming Industry: 1988-1993).
  • Project leader: Enhancement studies of coastal cod (Gadus morhua L.) in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. (Project T11 in the Norwegian Sea Ranching Program (PUSH) (1990-97)
  • Project leader: Cormorants as predators of cod (Project T23 in the Norwegian Sea Ranching Program (PUSH) (1992-97)
  • Participant NFR project 122448/122 Bergen (1998, 1999-2001) Growth, reproduction and migration in wild and cultivated lobster - a continuation of the Kvitsøy project.
  • Participant EU-project: FAIR CT 4266 Genetic diversity in the European lobster (Homarus gammarus (L.)): population structure and impacts of stock enhancement (GEL) (1999-2001) (Part of scientific team).
  • Norwegian observer in the EU 5th Framework Concerted Action project EDFAM (European Decapod Fisheries: Assessment and Management) (1998-2001, Meetings in Dublin, Galway, La Coruna)
  • Scientific project leader: Farming of plate-sized lobster (Industry led project (Norwegian Lobster Farm AS, Innovation Norway, RCN-FUNN-project) – (2000-2003)
  • Project leader: Well-being behaviour of halibut (Trivselsatferd hos kveite: The Research Council of Norway project 134029/122 year 2001-2002)
  • Project leader Institute of Marine Reserach’s part of Strategic Institute program: Welfare of farmed fish (2001-2006; Coordinator B. Damsgård, Fiskeriforskning). Leader of project: “Learning in farm fish”. Funded by The Research Council of Norway, SIP.
  • Participant EU-project WEALTH – Welfare and health in European Aquaculture (2004-2007, Coordinated by J. Glette and G.L. Taranger, IMR).

Main research areas
• Behaviour, cognition, coping ability, neurobiology, stress sensitivity and welfare of farmed fish (2001-).
• Population dynamics, stock enhancement and sea ranching with cod, including ecological studies of wild coastal cod and population dynamic modeling (1984-2001).
• Semi-intensive production of juvenile cod, halibut and turbut. Feed and feeding routines for cod reared in cages (1988-1994)
• Genetics and population dynamic studies, stock enhancement, sea ranching and intensive farming of European lobster  (1998-2005)

Publications in scientific journals and books

  • Vindas, M. A., Madaro, A., Fraser, T. W., Höglund, E., Olsen, R. E., Kristiansen, T. S., & Øverli, Ø. (2017). Uncontrollable chronic stress reduces growth disparities in farmed Atlantic salmon. Physiology & Behavior, 179, 246-252.
  • Vindas, M.A., Johansen, I.B., Folkedal, O. Höglund, E., Gorrissen, M., Flik, G., Kristiansen, T.S. 2016. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology. Royal Society Open Science 3(5):160030 · May 2016, DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160030
  • Folkedal, O., Pettersen, J. M., Bracke, M. B. M., Stien, L. H., Nilsson, J., Martins, C., Breck, O., Midtlyng, P. J., Kristiansen, T. S. 2015. On-farm evaluation of the Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0) - Theoretical and practical considerations. Animal Welfare 25: 135-149
  • Madaro, A,. Olsen, R. E., Kristiansen, T. S., Ebbeson. L., Flik, G., Gorissen, M. 2016. A comparative study of the response to repeated chasing stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr and post-smolts. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 192 · November 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.11.005
  • Madaro, A,. Fernö, A., Kristiansen, T. S., Olsen, R. E., Gorissen, M., Flik, G. & Nilsson, J. 2016. Effect of predictability on the stress response to chasing in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr. Physiology & Behavior 153: 1–6
  • Madaro, A., Olsen, R.E., Kristiansen, T.S., Ebbesson, L.O.E. Nilsen, T.O., Flik, G., Gorissen, M. 2015. Stress in Atlantic salmon: effects of unpredictable chronic stress. The journal of experimental biology. 218 (16):2538-2550
  • Castanheira, M.F., Conceição, L.E.C., Millot, S., Rey. S. Bégout, M-L., Damsgård, B., Kristiansen, T., Höglund, E., Øverli, Ø., Martins, C.I.M. 2015. Coping styles in farmed fish: consequences for aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture. DOI: 10.1111/raq.12100
  • Vindas, M.A.,  Sørensen, C., Johansen, I.B. Folkedal, O., Höglund, E, Khan, U.W., Stien, L.H. Kristiansen, T.S., Braastad, B.O., Øverli, Ø. 2014. Coping with Unpredictability: Dopaminergic and Neurotrophic Responses to Omission of Expected Reward in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) PLOS ONE 9 (1), 10.1371/journal.pone.0085543
  • Fiorito G, Affuso A, Anderson DB, Basil J, Bonnaud L, Botta G, Cole A, D’Angelo L, De Girolamo P, Dennison N, Dickel L, Di Cosmo A, Di Cristo C, Gestal C, Fonseca R, Grasso F, Kristiansen T, Kuba M, Mafuucio F, Manciciocco A, Mark FC, Melillo D, Ososio D, Palumbo A, Perkins K, Ponte G, Raspa M, Shashar N, Smith J, Smith D, Sykes A, Lopes RV, Tublitz N, Zullo L, Andrews P. 2014. Cephalopods in neuroscience: regulations, research and the 3Rs. Invertebrate Neuroscience 2014 Jan 3.
  • Korsøen, Ø.J., Dempster, T., Fosseidengen, J.-E., Karlsen, Ø., Oppedal, F., Stien, L.H., Kristiansen, T.S., 2013. Towards cod without spawning: artificial continuous light in submerged sea-cages maintains growth and delays sexual maturation for farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 3: 245-255
  • Millot, S., Nilsson, J., Fosseidengen, J.E., Begout, M-L., Fernö, A., Braithwaithe, V.A., Kristiansen, T.S. 2013. Innovative behaviour in fish: Atlantic cod can learn to use an external tag to manipulate a self-feeder Animal Cognition 11/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10071-013-0710-3.
  • Papandroulakis N, K. Lika, , F. Oppedal, P. Divanach, M. Pavlidis. 2013. Behaviour of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax T. Kristiansen L., in cages - impact of early life rearing conditions and management. Aquaculture Research. 01/2013:
  • Pettersen, J.M., Bracke, M.B.M., Midtlyng, P.J., Folkedal, O., Stien, L.H., Steffenak, H., Kristiansen, T.S. 2013. Review: Salmon welfare index model 2.0: an extended model for overall welfare assessment of caged Atlantic salmon, based on a review of selected welfare indicators and intended for fish health professionals. Reviews in Aquaculture (2013) 5, 1–18 DOI: 10.1111/raq.12039
  • Skulstad, O.F., Taylor, J., Davie, A.,  Migaud, H., Kristiansen, T., Mayer, I., Taranger, G.L., Olsen, R.E., Karlsen, Ø.,  2013. Effects of light regime on diurnal plasma melatonin levels and vertical distribution in farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) Aquaculture. Volumes 414–415, 15 November 2013, Pages 280–28
  • Stien, L.H., Bracke, M., Folkedal, O., Nilsson, J., Torgersen, T., Kittilsen, S., Midlyng, P.J., Vindas, M., Øverli, Ø., Kristiansen, T.S. 2013. Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0): a semantic modell for overall welfare assessment of caged Atlantic salmon: review of the selected welfare indicators and modelpresentation. Reviews in Aquaculture 5:33-57
  • Folkedal, O., Stien, L-H., Torgersen, T., Oppedal, F., Olsen, R.E., Fosseidengen, J.E., Braithwaite, V.A., Kristiansen, T. S. 2012. Food anticipatory behaviour as an indicator of stress response and recovery in Atlantic salmon post-smolt after exposure to acute temperature fluctuation. Physiology and Behavior 2012 Volum 105.(2) s. 350-356
  • Folkedal, O.,  Torgersen, T., Olsen, R.E., Fernö, A., Nilsson, J.,  Oppedal, F, Stien, L.H., Kristiansen, T.S. 2012. Duration of effects of acute environmental changes on food anticipatory behaviour, feed intake, oxygen consumption, and cortisol release in Atlantic salmon parr. Physiology and Behaviour. 105(2):283-91
  • Korsøen, Ø., Fosseidengen, J.E., Kristiansen, T.S., Oppedal, F., Bui, S., Dempster, T., 2012b. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a submerged sea-cage adapt rapidly to re-fill their swim bladders in an underwater air filled dome. Aquacultural Engineering 51, 1-6.
  • Korsøen, Ø.J., Dempster, T., Oppedal, F., Kristiansen, T.S. 2012. Individual variation in vertical swimming behaviour and growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) subjected to submergence in sea-cages. Aquaculture.  Volumes 334–337: 142–151
  • Martins, C I M, Galhardo, L. Noble, C, Spedicato, M.T., Zupa, W., Beauchaud, M, Kulczykowska, E, Massabuau, J-C., Carter, T, Planellas, S R, Damsgård, B and Kristiansen, T 2012. Behavioural indicators of farmed fish welfare. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry Fish physiology and biochemistry 38 (1), 17-41
  • Millot, S., Begout, M-L, Fosseidengen, J.E., Nilsson, J., Kristiansen., T.S. 2012. Evaluation of self-feeders as a tool to study diet preferences in groups of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquatic Living Resources 2012 ;Volum 25: 251-258
  • Nilsson, J., Stien, L., Fosseidengen, J.E., Olsen, R.E., Kristiansen, T.S. 2012. From fright to anticipation: Reward conditioning versus habituation to a moving dip net in farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Physiol Behav. 2012 Jan 18;105(2):283-91
  • Skulstad, Ole Fredrik; Karlsen, Ørjan; Fosseidengen, Jan Erik; Kristiansen, Tore S; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Oppedal, Frode. 2012. Vertical distribution and sexual maturation in cage-farming of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) exposed to natural or continuous light. Aquaculture Research 2012 s. 1-15
  • Stien, Lars Helge; Nilsson, Jonatan; Hevrøy, Ernst Morten; Oppedal, Frode; Kristiansen, Tore S; Lien, Andreas Myskja; Folkedal, Ole. Skirt around a salmon sea cage to reduce infestation of salmon lice resulted in low oxygen levels. Aquacultural Engineering 2012; Volum 51. s. 21-25
  • Vindas, Marco; Folkedal, Ole; Kristiansen, Tore S; Stien, Lars Helge; Braastad, Bjarne Olai; Mayer, Ian; Øverli, Øyvind. 2012. Omission of expected reward agitates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Animal Cognition 2012 ;Volum 15. s. 903-911
  • Fernö, A., Huse, G., Jacobsen, G., & Kristiansen, T.S. and Nilsson, J  2011. . Fish behaviour, learning, aquaculture and fisheries. In:  C. Brown, K. N. Laland & J. Krause.  Fish Cognition and Behaviour. 2nd Edition, Blackwell.
  • Torgersen, T., Bracke, M.B.M. and T.S. Kristiansen. 2011. Reply to Diggles et al. (2011): Ecology and welfare of aquatic animals in wild capture fisheries, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, DOI: 10.1007/s11160-011-9221-y
  • Kristiansen, T.S., Stien. L.H., Fosseidengen, J.E., Strand, E. and Juell, J-E. 2011. Subjective limit of tolerance to sudden swimbladder expansion in freely swimming Atlantic cod. Aquaculture International 19:625-636
  • Korsøen, Ø., Dempster, T., Fosseidengen, J.E., Heegård, E., Fernö, A., Kristiansen, T.S. (2010). Behavioural responses to pressure changes in cultured Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): defining practical limits for submerging and lifting sea-cages". Aquaculture 308:106-115.
  • Bratland, S., Stien.L.H., Braithwaite, V.A., Juell, J-E., Folkedal, O., Nilsson, J., Oppedal, F., Fosseidenengen, J.E., Kristiansen, T.S. 2010. From fright to anticipation: using aversive light stimuli to train reward conditioning in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture International 18(6):991-1001
  • Nilsson. J,  Kristiansen, T.S, Fosseidengen, L.H. Stien., J.E. Fernö, A. & van den Bos, R.  2010. Learning and anticipatory behaviour in a “sit-and-wait” predator: The Atlantic halibut. Behavioural Processes 83:257-266.
  • Agnalt, A-L., Farestveit, E., Gundersen, K., Jørstad, K., Kristiansen, T.S. 2009. Population characteristics of the world’s northernmost stocks of European lobster (Homarus gammarus) in Tysfjord and Nordfolda, northern Norway. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2009, Vol. 43: 47–57
  • Korsøen, Ø., Dempster, T., Fjelldal, P.G., Oppedal, F., Folkedal, O., Kristiansen, T., 2009 . Long-term, deep submergence of Atlantic salmon in sea-cages affects growth, behaviour and condition.  Aquaculture 296:373-381
  • Nilsson, J., Kristiansen, T.S., Fosseidengen, J.E., Fernö, A., van den Bos, R. 2008. Sign and goal tracking in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua). Animal Cognition 11: 651-659.
  • Nilsson, J., Kristiansen, T.S., Fosseidengen, J.E., Fernö, A., van den Bos, R. 2008. Learning in cod (Gadus morhua): long trace interval retention. Animal Cognition 11: 215-222.
  • Kristiansen, T.S., & Fernö, A. 2007 Individual behaviour and growth of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) fed sinking and floating feed: evidence of different coping styles. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 104: 236-250
  • Agnalt, A.L., Kristiansen, T.S., Jørstad, K.E. 2007. Growth, reproduction cycle, and movement of ovigerous European lobster (Homarus gammarus L.), in a local stock off south-western Norway. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64: 288-297
  • Stien, L.H., Bratland, S., Austevoll, I., Oppedal, F., Kristiansen, T.S. 2007. A video analysis procedure for assessing vertical fish distribution in aquaculture tanks. Aquacultural Engineering 37(2):115-124.
  • Fernö, A., Huse, G., Jacobsen, G., & Kristiansen, T.S.  2006. Chapter 16: The role of fish learning skills in fisheries and aquaculture. In:  C. Brown, K. N. Laland & J. Krause.  Fish Cognition and Behaviour. Blackwell. Pp 278-310
  • Jørstad, K.E., Prodohl, P.A., Kristiansen, T.S., Hughes, M., Farestveit, E., Taggart, J.B., Agnalt, A-L. Ferguson, A. 2005. Communal larval rearing of European lobster (Homarus gammarus): Family identification by microsatellite DNA profiling and offspring fitness comparisons. Aquaculture 247 (1-4), 275-285.
  • Kristiansen, T.S., Fernö, A., Holm, J.C., Privitera, L., Bakke, S., Fosseidengen, J.E., 2004. Swimming behaviour as an indicator of low growth rate and impaired welfare in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) reared at three stocking densities. Aquaculture 230:137-151.
  • Agnalt et al., 2004 A.-L. Agnalt, K.E. Jørstad, G.I. van der Meeren, E. Nøstvold, E. Farestveit, H. Næss, T. Kristiansen and O.I. Paulsen, Enhancing the European lobster (Homarus gammarus) stock at Kvitsøy Islands: perspectives on rebuilding Norwegian stocks. In: K. Leber, S. Kitada, H.L. Blankenship and T. Svåsand, Editors, Stock enhancement and sea ranching–developments, pitfalls and opportunities, Blackwell Publishing Ltd (2004), pp. 415–426.
  • Jørstad, K.E., Prodohl, P.A., Agnalt, A-L., Hughes, M., Apostolidis, A.P., Triantafyllidis, A., Farestveit, E., Kristiansen, T.S., Mercer, J., Svåsand, T.  2004. Sub-arctic populations of European lobster, Homarus gammarus, in northern Norway.  Environmental Biology of Fishes 69, 223-231
  • Jørstad, K.E., Nøstvold, E., Kristiansen, T. and Agnalt, A-L. (2001). High survival and growth of European lobster juveniles (Homarus gammarus), reared communally with natural bottom substrate. Marine & Freshwater Research, 52:1431-8.
  • Kristiansen, T.S., Michalsen, K.,  Jacobsen, J.A. & Huse, I. (2001) Optimal selection of temperature areas by juvenile cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Barents Sea modelled by dynamic optimisation.  ICES Journal of Marine Science. 58(1): 172-182.