Krisna R. Torrissen

Forsker
Telefon: 55238574
Avdeling: Økosystemprosesser 2180

Curriculum Vitae

Nutritional Biochemistry in Aquaculture and Fisheries Research on food utilization and performance qualities of growth and maturation of aquatic animals in both aquaculture and natural ecosystem using unique combinations of different biochemical techniques (digestive efficiency and protein digestion, trypsin isozymes, capacity for protein synthesis and turnover, white muscle quality, oocyte quality, dietary quality assessment)

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Arbeider med

Nutritional Biochemistry in Aquaculture and Fisheries Research on food utilization and performance qualities of growth and maturation of aquatic animals in both aquaculture and natural ecosystem using unique combinations of different biochemical techniques (digestive efficiency and protein digestion, trypsin isozymes, capacity for protein synthesis and turnover, white muscle quality, oocyte quality, dietary quality assessment)

Curriculum Vitae

Education:
Dr. Philos. (Fisheries and Marine Biology) at University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
M.Sc. (Biochemistry) at Faculty of Graduate Studies, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
B.Sc. (Food Technology) at Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Activities:
2014-2015: Working on an academic book
2013: Working on two book chapters
2012: International Polar Year 2012 Conference, Montreal, Canada, April 22–27, 2012. [Poster on “Ecological effects on food utilization, trypsin isozymes, and performance qualities of growth and maturation in Northeast Arctic cod ( Gadus morhua L.)” with presentation on YouTube.com]
2011: Invited as an international evaluation expert for the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the New Eurasia Foundation, Moscow, Russia.
2009–Present: Research on “Alternative methods for studies of food utilization and performance qualities of growth and maturation of aquatic animals for future fisheries research on environmental impact”
2008: Initiative Partner of two Thailand–EC proposals on “Annual Variation in Trophic Interaction in the Andaman Sea: Digestive Efficiency and Qualities of Growth and Sexual Maturation”, and “Research and Workshop on Improvement of Feed Utilisation and Quality of Catfish ( Pangasius bocourti )”
NFR proposal on “Effects of Diet Composition and Environment on Qualities of Growth and Maturation of Northeast Arctic Cod ( Gadus morhua )”
2007: Invited member of the Peer Review College of the Danish Council for Strategic Research, Programme Commission on Health, Food and Biological Manufacturing, Denmark.
2007–2010: Research on “Development of suitable feed for commercial production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus ”, at Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, supported by National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Thailand
2007: Involved in establishment of the “Biochemical Research Unit for Feed Utilisation Assessment” at Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
2006–Present: Annually organising scientific conference for The Association of Thai Professionals in European Region (ATPER), sponsored by the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), and the Office of the Higher Education Commission (OHEC), Thailand
2005–Present: President of The Association of Thai Professionals in European Region (ATPER), supported by the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), and the Office of the Higher Education Commission (OHEC), Thailand
2004–2006: Proteomic Research at the Institute of Marine Research, Norway, in cooperation with the National Proteomics Platform (PROBE), University of Bergen, Norway
2000–Present: External academic adviser for Ph.D., M.Sc., and B.Sc. students at different universities in Thailand, supported by the Reverse Brain Drain Programme under the Office of the Higher Education Commission (OHEC), Ministry of Education, and the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Thailand
1999–2002: Co-ordinator of four EU-proposals involving institutions in Europe and Asia
1998–Present: Reviewer for different international scientific journals
1997–2005: Principal Contractor of two EU-projects – as supervisor, one Ph.D. thesis was produced.
1994–Present: Principal Research Scientist at the Institute of Marine Research, Norway
1990–1994: Senior Research Scientist at the Institute of Marine Research, Norway
1989–1995: Member of the Advisory Board of Feedingstuff to Fish, Norwegian Agricultural Inspection Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Norway
1989–1991: Invited lecturer for Aquaculture Course on tropical aquaculture at the University of Bergen, Norway
1987–1988: Training in tropical aquaculture in Thailand, Philippines and Bangladesh
1981–1999: Project leader of different research projects supported by the Norwegian Research Council
1980–1989: Research Scientist at the Institute of Marine Research, Norway
1978–1979: Research Scientist at the Vitamin Institute (at present: National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research), Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, Norway. Supported by NORAD (Norwegian Agency for International Development)
1973–1980: Lecturer at the Department of Biochemistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Promoted to Assistant Professor in 1979

Publications:

67) Hjønevik L.V., A.K. Frøyset, T.A. Grønset, K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen and K.E. Fladmark. 2015. Algal toxin azaspiracid-1 induces early neuronal differentiation and alters peripherin isoform stoichiometry. Marine Drugs 13, 7309 - 7402.
http://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/13/12/7072/

66) Chamchuen P., B. Pratoomchat, A. Engkakul, U. Kovitvadhi and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2014. Development of enzymes and in vitro digestibility during metamorphosis and molting of blue swimming crab ( Portunus pelagicus ). Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 2014, Article ID 436789, 12 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/436789.
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2014/436789/

65) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K. 2014. Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.: Food Utilization, Protein Growth Efficiency and Maturation. In: Salmon: Biology, Ecological Impacts and Economical Importance. (ed. by P.T.K. Woo & D.J. Noakes), pp. 121–154. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, USA.
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64) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K. 2014. Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.: Genetic Variations in Protein Metabolism and Growth. In: Salmon: Biology, Ecological Impacts and Economical Importance. (ed. by P.T.K. Woo & D.J. Noakes), pp. 85–120. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, USA.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=49703

63) Thongprajukaew K., S. Kovitvadhi, U. Kovitvadhi and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2014. Pigment deposition and in vitro screening of natural pigment sources for enhancing pigmentation in male Siamese fighting fish ( Betta splendens Regan, 1910). Aquaculture Research 45, 709–719.

62) Thongprajukaew K., U. Kovitvadhi, A. Engkagul and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2013. Evaluation of growth performance and nutritional quality of diets using digestive enzyme markers and in vitro digestibility in Siamese fighting fish ( Betta splendens Regan, 1910). African Journal of Biotechnology 12, 1689–1702.

61) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K. 2012. Trypsin and its implementations for growth, maturation, and dietary quality assessment. In: Trypsin: Structure, Biosynthesis and Functions. (ed. by K. Weaver & C. Kelley), pp. 1–59. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, USA.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=38114

60) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K., K. Thongprajukaew, K. Sansuwan, P. Thapthimdaeng, U. Kovitvadhi, S. Seetaha, K. Choowongkomon, I.M. Beck and O.O. Arnøy. 2012. Ecological effects on food utilization, trypsin isozymes, and performance qualities of growth and maturation in Northeast Arctic cod ( Gadus morhua L.). The Open Fish Science Journal 5, 44–56. http://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOFISHSJ-5-44

59) Unajak S., P. Meesawat, A. Paemanee, N. Areechon, A. Engkagul, U. Kovitvadhi, S. Kovitvadhi, K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen and K. Choowongkomon. 2012. Characterization of thermostable trypsin and determination of trypsin isozymes from intestine of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.). Food Chem. 134, 1533–1541.

58) Thongprajukaew K., U. Kovitvadhi, S. Kovitvadhi, P. Somsueb and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2011. Effects of different modified diets on growth, digestive enzyme activities and muscle compositions in juvenile Siamese fighting fish ( Betta splendens Regan, 1910). Aquaculture 322–323, 1–9.

57) Thongprajukaew K., U. Kovitvadhi, A. Engkagul and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2010. Characterization and expression levels of protease enzymes at different developmental stages of Siamese fighting fish ( Betta splendens Regan, 1910). Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 44, 411–423.

56) Thongprajukaew K., U. Kovitvadhi, A. Engkagul and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2010. Temperature and pH characteristics of amylase and lipase at different developmental stages of Siamese fighting fish ( Betta splendens Regan, 1910). Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 44, 210–219.

55) Khrueanet W., U. Kovitvadhi, A. Engkagul, S. Kovitvadhi and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2009. Characterization of digestive enzymes of adult freshwater pearl mussel Chamberlainia hainesiana (Lea, 1856). KKU Sci. J. 37 (Supplement), 11–21.

54) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K., L.H. Stien, B.S. Daae, T. Vågseth, G.B. Thorsheim, D. Tobin and O. Ritola. 2009. Different dietary levels of protein to lipid ratio affected digestive efficiency, skeletal growth, and muscle protein in rainbow trout families. Scholarly Research Exchange, vol. 2009, Article ID 709529, doi:10.3814/2009/709529. http://www.hindawi.com/archive//2009/709529/abs/

53) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K., J. Sunde, A.E. Berg, U. Nordgarden, P.G. Fjelldal and F. Oppedal. 2009. Digestive efficiency, free amino acid pools and quality of growth performance in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) affected by light regimes and vaccine types. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 35, 255–272.
52) Supannapong P., T. Pimsalee, T. A-komol, A. Engkagul, U. Kovitvadhi, S. Kovitvadhi and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2008. Digestive enzymes and in vitro digestibility of different species of phytoplankton for culture of the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis (Hyriopsis) bialatus . Aquacult. Int. 16, 437–453.
51) Chamchuen P., A. Engkakul, U. Kovitvadhi, K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen and B. Pratoomchat. 2008. Temperature and pH characteristics of digestive enzymes in blue swimming crab larvae, ( Portunus pelagicus ). 10 pp. Proceedings of the 9th National Grad Research Conference, 14–15 March 2008, Burapha University, Bangsaen, Chonburi, Thailand.
50) Kause A., L.H. Stien, K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen, O. Ritola, K. Ruohonen and A. Kiessling. 2008. Image analysis as a tool to facilitate selective breeding of quality traits in rainbow trout. Livestock Sci. 114, 315–324.
49) Kause A., D. Tobin, E.A. Mäntysaari, S.A.M. Martin, D.F. Houlihan, A. Kiessling, K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen, O. Ritola and K. Ruohonen. 2007. Genetic potential for simultaneous selection of growth and body composition in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) depends on the dietary protein and lipid content: Phenotypic and genetic correlations on two diets. Aquaculture 271, 162–172.
48) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K. and J.E. Fosseidengen. 2007. Effect of artificial feeding on digestive efficiency, growth and qualities of muscle and oocyte of maturing Atlantic mackerel ( Scomber scombrus L.). J. Food Biochem. 31, 726–747.
47) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K. 2007. Digestive efficiency, growth and qualities of muscle and oocyte in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) fed on diets with krill meal as an alternative protein source. J. Food Biochem. 31, 509–540.
46) Areekijseree M., A. Engkagul, S. Kovitvadhi, U. Kovitvadhi, A. Thongpan and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2006. Development of digestive enzymes and in vitro digestibility of different species of phytoplankton for culture of early juveniles of the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis (Hyriopsis) bialatus Simpson, 1900. Invert. Reprod. Develop. 49, 255–262.
45) Stien L.H., F. Manne, K. Ruohonen, A. Kause, K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen and A. Kiessling. 2006. Automated image analysis as a tool to quantify the colour and composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) cutlets. Aquaculture 261, 695–705.
44) Tobin D., A. Kause, E.A. Mäntysaari, S.A.M. Martin, D.F. Houlihan, A. Dobly, A. Kiessling, K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen, O. Ritola and K. Ruohonen. 2006. Fat or lean? The quantitative genetic basis for selection strategies of muscle and body composition traits in breeding schemes of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). Aquaculture 261, 510–521.
43) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K., R. Moss, L.H. Andresen, A. Berg and R. Waagbø. 2006. Different expressions of trypsin and chymotrypsin in relation to growth in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 32, 7–23.
42) Sunde J., S.A. Eiane, A. Rustad, H.B. Jensen, J. Opstvedt, E. Nygård, G. Venturini and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2004. Effect of fish feed processing conditions on digestive protease activities, free amino acid pools, feed conversion efficiency and growth in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture Nutrition 10, 261–277.
41) Areekijseree M., A. Engkagul, U. Kovitvadhi, A. Thongpan, M. Mingmuang, P. Pakkong and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2004. Temperature and pH characteristics of amylase and proteinase of adult freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis (Hyriopsis) bialatus Simpson 1900. Aquaculture 234, 575–587.
40) Sunde J., A. Kiessling, D. Higgs, J. Opstvedt, G. Venturini and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2003. Evaluation of feed protein quality by measuring plasma free amino acids in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) after dorsal aorta cannulation. Aquaculture Nutrition 9, 351–360.
39) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K. 2002. Wild salmon should not be threatened by healthy and non-genetically manipulated escapees. ICES Conference, CM 2002/T:07, 16 pp., October 1–5, Copenhagen, Denmark.
38) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K., A. Rustad, J. Sunde, S.A. Eiane, H.B. Jensen, J. Opstvedt, E. Nygård, T.A. Samuelsen, H. Mundheim, U. Luzzana and G. Venturini. 2002. In vitro digestibility based on fish crude enzyme extract for prediction of feed quality in growth trials. J. Sci. Food Agric. 82, 644–654.
37) Sunde J., G.L. Taranger and K. Rungruangsak-Torrissen. 2001. Digestive protease activities and free amino acids in white muscle as indicators for feed conversion efficiency and growth rate in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 25, 335–345.
36) Miller E.L., Y.X. Huang, S. Kasinathan, B. Rayner, U. Luzzana, V.M. Moretti, F. Valfre, K.R. Torrissen, H.B. Jensen and J. Opstvedt. 2001. Heated-damaged protein has reduced ileal true digestibility of cystine and aspartic acid in chick. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 79 Suppl. 1, 65–66. (Abstract)
35) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K. and B.K. Stensholt. 2001. Spatial distribution of Atlantic salmon post-smolts: Association between genetic differences in trypsin isozymes and environmental variables. In: Spatial Processes and Management of Marine Populations. (ed. by G.H. Kruse, N. Bez, A. Booth, M.W. Dorn, S. Hills, R.N. Lipcius, D. Pelletier, C. Roy, S.J. Smith & D. Witherell), pp. 415–429. University of Alaska Sea Grant, AK-SG-01-02, Fairbanks.
34) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K. and A. Sundby. 2000. Protease activities, plasma free amino acids and insulin at different ages of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) with genetically different trypsin isozymes. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 22, 337–347.
33) Rungruangsak Torrissen K. and R. Male. 2000. Trypsin isozymes: development, digestion and structure. In: Seafood Enzymes: Utilization and influence on postharvest seafood quality. (ed. by N.F. Haard & B.K. Simpson), pp. 215–269. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
32) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K., H.I. Wergeland, J. Glette and R. Waagbø. 1999. Disease resistance and immune parameters in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) with genetically different trypsin isozymes. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 9, 557–568.
31) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K., C.G. Carter, A. Sundby, A. Berg and D.F. Houlihan. 1999. Maintenance ration, protein synthesis capacity, plasma insulin and growth of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) with genetically different trypsin isozymes. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 21, 223–233.
30) Rungruangsak-Torrissen K., G.M. Pringle, R. Moss and D.F. Houlihan. 1998. Effects of varying rearing temperatures on expression of different trypsin isozymes, feed conversion efficiency and growth in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 19, 247–255.
29) Bassompierre M., T.H. Ostenfeld, E. McLean and K. Rungruangsak Torrissen. 1998. In vitro protein digestion, and growth of Atlantic salmon with different trypsin isozymes. Aquaculture International 6, 47–56.
28) Torrissen K.R., E. Lied and M. Espe. 1995. Differences in utilization of dietary proteins with varying degrees of partial pre-hydrolysis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) with genetically different trypsin isozymes. In: Biopolymers and Bioproducts: Structure, Function and Applications. Proceedings of the 11th FAOBMB Symposium (IUBMB Symposium No.239). ISBN 974–632–655–4, pp.432–442.
27) Male R., J.B. Lorens, A.O. Smalås and K.R. Torrissen. 1995. Molecular cloning and characterization of anionic and cationic variants of trypsin from Atlantic salmon. Eur. J. Biochem. 232, 677–685.
26) Torrissen K.R., E. Lied and M. Espe. 1995. Differences in amino acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus L.) with genetically different trypsin isozymes. Aquaculture 137, 191–192. (Abstract)
25) Torrissen K.R., E. Lied and M. Espe. 1994. Differences in digestion and absorption of dietary protein in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) with genetically different trypsin isozymes. J. Fish Biol. 45, 1087–1104.
24) Rungruangsak Torrissen K. 1993. Trypsin isozyme TRP-2(92): a growth marker in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and its effect on digestion and absorption of dietary protein. Dissertation for the degree of Doctor philosophiae, Institute of Marine Research, Aquaculture Center, and University of Bergen, Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Bergen, Norway, ISBN 82–7744–002–2.
23) Espe M., E. Lied and K.R. Torrissen. 1993. In vitro protein synthesis in muscle of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) as affected by the degree of proteolysis in feeds. J. Anim. Physiol. a. Anim. Nutr. 69, 260–266.
22) Espe M., E. Lied and K.R. Torrissen. 1993. Changes in plasma and muscle free amino acids in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) during absorption of diets containing different amounts of hydrolysed cod muscle protein. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 105A, 555–562.
21) Torrissen K.R., R. Male and G. Nævdal. 1993. Trypsin isozymes in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: studies of heredity, egg quality and effect on growth of three different populations. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 24, 407–415.
20) Torrissen K.R. and K.D. Shearer. 1992. Protein digestion, growth and food conversion in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr with different trypsin-like isozyme patterns. J. Fish Biol. 41, 409–415.
19) Torrissen K.R. and T.N. Barnung. 1991. Genetic difference in trypsin-like isozyme pattern between two strains of Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus ). Aquaculture 96, 227–231.
18) Torrissen K.R. 1991. Genetic variation in growth rate of Atlantic salmon with different trypsin-like isozyme patterns. Aquaculture 93, 299–312.
17) Holm J.C. and K.R. Torrissen. 1987. Growth depression and acclimatization of protease activity in Atlantic salmon first-feeding fry responding to a diet supplemented with zooplankton. Aquaculture 65, 171–174.
16) Torrissen K.R. 1987. Genetic variation of trypsin-like isozymes correlated to fish size of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). Aquaculture 62, 1–10.
15) Torrissen K.R. and O.J. Torrissen. 1985. Protease activities and carotenoid levels during the sexual maturation of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). Aquaculture 50, 113–122.
14) Hansen T. and K.R. Torrissen. 1985. Artificial hatching substrate and different times of transfer to first feeding: effect on growth and protease activities of the Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). Aquaculture 48, 177–188.
13) Torrissen K.R. 1984. Characterization of proteases in the digestive tract of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in comparison with rainbow trout ( Salmo gairdneri ). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 77B, 669–674.
12) Torrissen K.R. and O.J. Torrissen. 1984. Digestive proteases of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) from different river strains: development after hatching, rearing temperature effect and effect of sex and maturation. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 77B, 15–20.
11) Rungruangsak K. and F. Utne. 1981. Effect of different acidified wet feeds on protease activities in the digestive tract and on growth rate of rainbow trout ( Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Aquaculture 22, 67–79.
10) Vimokesant S., S. Kunjara, K. Rungruangsak, S. Nakornchai, and B. Panijpan. 1982. Beriberi caused by antithiamine factors in food and its prevention. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 378, 123–136.
9) Rungruangsak K. and B. Panijpan. 1979. A simple undergraduate experiment to illustrate the mechanism of action of salivary amylase. J. Chem. Educ. 56, 423–424.
8) Rungruangsak K. and B. Panijpan. 1978. Absorbance change in the visible region should be reconsidered for assay of starch cleavage by alpha-amylases. Clin. Chem. 24, 1085.
7) Rungruangsak, K. and Svasti, J. (Editors). "Laboratory and Principles in Biochemistry". Thai textbook under Siriraj Textbook Programme, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, 358pp. (1978)
6) Poopyruchpong N., K. Rungruangsak, S. Nimmanpisut, B. Panijpan and K. Ratanabanangkoon. 1978. Some physico-chemical properties of 2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene. J. Sci. Soc. Thailand 4, 163–167.
5) Panijpan B., P. Vilartsakdanon, K. Rungruangsak and S.L. Vimokesant. 1978. Resolution of the initial phase controversy in the thiamin-polyphenol reaction. Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 48, 262–267.
4) Rungruangsak K., P. Tosukhowong, B. Panijpan and S.L. Vimokesant. 1977. Chemical interactions between thiamin and tannic acid. I: Kinetics, oxygen dependence and inhibition by ascorbic acid. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30, 1680–1685.
3) Vimokesant S., S. Nakornchai and K. Rungruangsak. 1976. Studies on the cause of beriberi in the Thais. Nutritional Bulletin 10, 1–20. (Thai)
2) Vimokesant S., S. Nakornchai, K. Rungruangsak, S. Dhanamitta and D.M. Hilker. 1976. Food habits causing thiamin deficiency in humans. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo) 22 SUPPL, 1–2.
1) Vimokesant S.L., D.M. Hilker, S. Nakornchai, K. Rungruangsak and S. Dhanamitta. 1975. Effects of betel nut and fermented fish on the thiamin status of Northern Thai. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28, 1458–1463.

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