Kjell Gundersen

Telefon: 404 28 173

Arbeider med

Research Interests - One of the key processes in environmental biogeochemistry is micro-plankton growth physiology, nutrient acquisition and microbial regeneration of elements. Phytoplankton primary producers are constrained by physical and chemical boundaries within their environment. Tributaries, estuaries, continental margins, and even open oceans, represent a unique transition between atmosphere, land and ocean with strong physical and biogeochemical couplings. My primary research interest is the interaction between auto- and heterotrophic micro-plankton and the physical and chemical parameters constraining their growth physiology and hence, their significance in open ocean and coastal water biogeochemistry.

Key words - Primary productivity; Microbial respiration; Biogeochemistry, C, N, P-cycling; New & regenerated production


Aquatic primary productivity and respiration - Microbial growth physiology and biogeochemical cycling has always been constrained by our access to new technology. Newfound technological discoveries used to the fullest extent can be very powerful and this is one of the reasons why I find our field of research so exciting. Diel netPP and RESP can now be measured in-situ using a novel DO sensor (that does not consume oxygen) positioned inside an incubator flask. The incubator unit can be light-dark manipulated (5 minutes is enough to get a significant read on net daytime respiration) using a timer controlled unit. Since my arrival at Institute of Marine Research (IMR) in Bergen, the incubator is in the process of being redesigned for onboard in-vitro incubations that generate phytoplankton photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) curves. Since RESP is measured at each light-level (and is not a linear function of netPP)  total PP can also be calculated from this incubation.

Automated sensor platforms used in time-series monitoring - Automated sensors on moored applications were first pioneered in physical oceanography (temperature, salinity, current meters and lately the ADCP), but we are now entering a new chapter in ocean science where more sophisticated chemical and biological sensors are starting to become commercially available. In order to ground-truth the new methods and provide a link to the past, these sensors must be combined with conventional biogeochemical sampling methods. A number of new and exciting sensor platforms, such as Gliders and ARGO buoys, are now routinely used by IMR in the Norwegian Sea and into the Arctic Ocean. In addition to salinity and temperature, automated Glider and ARGO sensor platforms are now also equipped with turbidity and in-situ fluorescence sensors that can cover large regions of the ocean interior.

Curriculum Vitae

Kjell Gundersen

Institute of Marine Research
P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes
NO-5817 Bergen, Norway

Phone:  (+47) 4042 8173
Fax:  (+47) 5523 8531
e-mail:  Kjell.Gundersen@imr.no

Education

Doctor of Philosophy (April 1999) Biological Oceanography; Factors Controlling Bacterial Abundance, Biomass and Growth at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study Site, Department of Oceanography, University of Southampton, England, UK

Master of Science (February 1989) Marine Biology; Degradation and the Effect of Using Chloroform in Sediment Traps, Institute for Marine Biology, University of Bergen, Norway

Professional Experience

(2013-present)  Researcher, Plankton Research Group, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
(2006-2013)  Assistant Research Professor, DMS, University of Southern Mississippi, MS, USA
(2004-2006)  Research Associate, Darling Marine Center, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
(2003-2007)  Adjunct Research Faculty, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, ME, USA
(2002-2003)  Postdoctoral Researcher, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, ME, USA
(1998-2001)  Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Stockholm University, Sweden
(1989-1997)  Research Assistant, Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) at Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR), Bermuda

International Refereed Publications

Orcutt, K. M., K. Gundersen, J.W. Ammerman (2013) Intense ectoenzyme activities associated with Trichodesmium colonies in the Sargasso Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 478:101-113

Luo, Y.-W., Doney, S. C., Anderson, L. A., Benavides, M., Berman-Frank, I., Bode, A., Bonnet, S., Boström, K. H., Böttjer, D., Capone, D. G., Carpenter, E. J., Chen, Y. L., Church, M. J., Dore, J. E., Falcón, L. I., Fernández, A., Foster, R. A., Furuya, K., Gómez, F., Gundersen, K., Hynes, A. M., Karl, D. M., Kitajima, S., Langlois, R. J., LaRoche, J., Letelier, R. M., Marañón, E., McGillicuddy Jr, D. J., Moisander, P. H., Moore, C. M., Mouriño-Carballido, B., Mulholland, M. R., Needoba, J. A., Orcutt, K. M., Poulton, A. J., Rahav, E., Raimbault, P., Rees, A. P., Riemann, L., Shiozaki, T., Subramaniam, A., Tyrrell, T., Turk-Kubo, K. A., Varela, M., Villareal, T. A., Webb, E. A., White, A. E., Wu, J., and Zehr, J. P. ( 2012) Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates. Earth System Science Data, 4, 47-73, DOI:10.5194/essd-4-47-2012

Cai, W.-J., X. Hu, W.-J. Huang, M.C. Murrell, J.C. Lehrter, S.E. Lohrenz, W.-C. Chou, W. Zhai, J.T. Hollibaugh, Y. Wang, P. Zhao, X. Guo, K. Gundersen, M. Dai & G.-C. Gong (2011) Eutrophication and high atmospheric pCO2 enhance ocean acidification and denitrification. Nature Geoscience, DOI:10.1038/NGEO1297

Boss, E., L. Taylor, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, N. Hawley, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, H. Purcell, C. Robertson, D. Schar, G.J. Smith & M. Tamburri (2009) Comparison of inherent optical properties as a surrogate for particulate matter concentration in coastal waters. Limnology & Oceanography: Methods 7:803-810

Orcuttt, K.M., S. Ren & K. Gundersen (2009) Detecting proteins in highly autofluorescent cells using quantum dot antibody conjugates. Sensors 9:7540-7549

Orcutt, K.M., K. Gundersen, M.L. Wells, N.J. Poulton, M.E. Sieracki & G.J. Smith (2008) Lighting up phytoplankton cells with quantum dots. Limnology & Oceanography: Methods 6:653-658

Degerholm, J., K. Gundersen, S. Hajdu,  B. Bergman & E. Söderbäck (2008) Seasonal significance of N2 fixation in coastal and off-shore waters of the north-western Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 360:73-84

Orcutt, K.M., K. Gundersen & U. Rasmussen (2007) Another look at green Trichodesmium colonies. Limnology & Oceanography 53:2049-2051

Ohlendieck, U., K. Gundersen, M. Meyerhöfer, P. Fritsche, K. Nachtigall & B. Bergman (2007) The significance of nitrogen fixation to new production during early summer in the Baltic sea. Biogeosciences 4:1-11

Degerholm, J., K. Gundersen, B. Bergman & E. Söderbäck (2006) Phosphorus limiting growth in the filamentous cyanobacteria Nodularia sp. and Aphanizomenon sp. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 58:323-332

Gundersen, K., M. Heldal, S. Norland & D.A. Purdie (2002) Elemental C, N and P content of individual bacteria collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Limnology & Oceanography 47:1525-1530

Gallon, J.R., P. Albertano, B. Bergman, K.v. Bröckel, A. Canini, R. Congresti, A.M. Evans, P. Fritsche, K. Gundersen, S.te L. Hekkert, A. Jones, M. Meyerhöfer, K. Nachtigall, U. Ohlendieck, K.M. Orcutt, S. Repka, K. Sivonen, M. Staal & L.J. Stal (2002) Uncoupling of N2 fixation and primary production in a developing cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. Limnology & Oceanography 47:1514-1521

Orcutt, K., U. Rasmussen, E.A. Webb, J.B. Waterbury, K. Gundersen & B. Bergman (2002) Characterization of Trichodesmium spp. using genetic techniques including HIP1 DNA fingerprinting. Applied Environmental Microbiology 68:2236-2245

Gundersen, K., K.M. Orcutt, D.A. Purdie, A.F. Michaels & A.H. Knap (2001) Particulate organic carbon mass distribution at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Deep-Sea Research II 48:1697-1718

Orcutt, K.M., F. Lipschultz, K. Gundersen, R. Arimoto, A.F. Michaels, A.H. Knap & J.R. Gallon (2001) A seasonal study of the significance of N2 fixation by Trichodesmium spp. at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Deep-Sea Research II 48:1583-1608

Heiskanen, A.-S., Haapala, J. & K. Gundersen (1998) Sedimentation and pelagic retention of particulate C, N and P in the coastal northern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 46:703-712

Gundersen, K., G. Bratbak & M. Heldal (1996) Factors influencing the loss of bacteria in preserved seawater samples. Marine Ecology Progress Series 137:305-310

Heiskanen, A.-S., T. Tamminen & K. Gundersen (1996) Impact of planktonic food web structure on nutrient retention and loss from late summer pelagic system in the northern Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 145:195-208

Hansell, D., N.R. Bates & K. Gundersen (1995) Mineralization of dissolved organic carbon in the Sargasso Sea. Marine Chemistry 51:201-212

Michaels, A.F., A.H. Knap, R.L. Dow, K. Gundersen, R.J. Johnson, J. Sorensen, A. Close, G.A. Knauer, S.E. Lohrenz, V.A. Asper, M. Tuel & R. Bidigare (1994) Seasonal patterns of ocean biogeochemistry at the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site. Deep-Sea Research 41:1013-1038

Lignell, R., A.-S. Heiskanen, H. Kuosa, K. Gundersen, P. Kuuppo-Leinikki, R. Pajuniemi & A. Uitto (1993) Fate of phytoplankton spring bloom: sedimentation and carbon flow in the planktonic food web in the northern Baltic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 94:239-252

Gundersen, K. & P. Wassmann (1990) Use of chloroform in sediment traps: caution advised. Marine Ecology Progress Series 64:187-195

International Meeting Contributions (last 5 years)

Howden, S., J. Griffin, R. Wanninkhof, G. Friederich, K. Gundersen & K. Martin (2014) A pilot project for autonomous ocean acidification surveys in the northern Gulf with the Liquid Robotics Wave Glider. ASLO Ocean Sciences, Honolulu, HI, USA [POSTER]

Gundersen, K., S. Howden, D. redalje & S. Lohrenz (2012) River discharge, stratification and shelf water hypoxia in the Mississippi Bight, Ocean Science Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, USA [POSTER]

Orcutt, K.M., P. Burnett and K. Gundersen (2012) Molecular detection of unicellular diazotrophs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. ASLO Ocean Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

Vandermeulen, R.A. & K. Gundersen (2012) Community growth physiology and nutrient chemistry in an estuarine coastal environment in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, Ocean Science Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, USA [POSTER]

Burnett, P., K. Orcutt, K. Gundersen, A. Mojzis & D. Redalje (2011) The nitrogen budget in coastal waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico is influenced by seasonal hypoxic events, 21st Biennial Conference of the Coastal and estuarine research Federation (CERF), Daytona Beach, FL, USA [POSTER]

Vandermeulen, R.A. & K. Gundersen (2011) Balancing photosynthesis and community respiration in an estuarine coastal environment in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, 21st Biennial Conference of the Coastal and estuarine research Federation (CERF), Daytona Beach, FL, USA [POSTER]

Cumbaa, N.O., K. Gundersen & A.C. Ortmann (2011) Archaeal community structure in two distinct seasonally hypoxic zones in the Northern Gulf of Mexico region. ASLO Aquatic Sciences meeting, San Juan, PR, USA

Ortell N., K. Gundersen & A.C. Ortmann (2011) Distribution and diversity of Archaea in two distinct seasonally hypoxic regions: Mobile Bay and coastal Mississippi. Mississippi-Alabama Bays and Bayous Symposium, Biloxi, MS, USA [POSTER]

Gundersen, K. & R. Vandermeulen (2010) Diurnal respiration in microplankton measured by automated optical dissolved oxygen (DO) sensor technology. Gordon Research Conference – Marine Microbes, Tilton, NH, USA [POSTER]

Ren, S., K.M. Orcutt, K. Gundersen (2010) Using Qdot conjugates to detect proteins in situ in highly autofluorescent cyanobacteria cells.  In: Marine Technology for Our Future: Global and Local Challenges, Oceans 09, MTS/IEEE-Biloxi, MS, USA

Orcutt, K.M., S. Ren & K. Gundersen (2010) Detecting proteins in highly autofluorescent cells using Quantum dot antibody conjugates. Gordon Research Conference – Marine Microbes, Tilton, NH, USA [POSTER]

Gundersen, K., S. Ren & K.M. Orcutt (2010) Quantum dot (Qdot) conjugates, a powerful new tool to detect proteins in highly autofluorescent cells. Ocean Sciences meeting, Portland, OR, USA [POSTER]

Gundersen, K., S.D. Howden & S. Lohrenz (2010) Hypoxia Monitoring on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Workshop on Ecological Impacts of Hypoxia on Living Resources, NOAA National Coastal Data Development Center, Bay St. Louis, MS, USA

Gundersen, K. (2009) Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) -Ocean Systems "Ocean-Climate Interactive". National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Conference, New Orleans, LA, USA

Gundersen, K. (2009) Biology and the hypoxia. Hypoxia in the Mississippi Bight, Mississippi Department of Marine Resources, Biloxi, MS, USA

Howden, S.D., C. Brunner, S.E. Lohrenz, L. Guo, D.G. Redalje, A.M. Shiller, K.M. Martin, K. Gundersen, M.-J. Shim & A. Mojzis (2009) Monitoring and Assessment of Coastal and Marine Ecosystems in the Northern Gulf: USM-03. Northern Gulf Institute (NGI) Annual Conference, Mobile, AL, USA

Technicial Reports

Alliance for Coastal Technologies (2013) Performance Verification Statement for Automated Hydrocarbon Sensors. http://www.act-us.info/evaluation reports.php

Alliance for Coastal Technologies (2009) Performance Verification Statement for Automated Conductivity Sensors. http://www.act-us.info/evaluation reports.php

Alliance for Coastal Technologies (2007) Performance Verification Statement for Automated Turbidity Sensors. http://www.act-us.info/evaluation reports.php

Alliance for Coastal Technologies (2006) Performance Verification Statement for Automated Fluorometers. http://www.act-us.info/evaluation reports.php

Alliance for Coastal Technologies (2005) Performance Verification Statement for Dissolved Oxygen Sensors. http://www.act-us.info/evaluation reports.php

Method Manuals & Workshop Proceedings

UNESCO (1994) Protocols for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Core measurements. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Scientific Committee on Oceanic research, Manual & Guides 29, UNESCO

Knap, A., A.F. Michaels, R.L. Dow, R. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J.C. Sorensen, A.R. Close, F.A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle & T. Waterhouse (1993) Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study BATS Method Manual, Version 3. U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, U.S. JGOFS Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, MA, USA

Gundersen, K. (1990) Sampling precision and preservation of sediment trap material. In: Sediment trap studies in the Nordic countries 2, Proceedings of the symposium “Sediment traps in marine ecological research and monitoring”, Wassmann, P., A.-S. Heiskanen & O. Lindahl (Eds.), NurmiPrint Oy, Finland

Gundersen, K. (1988) Degradation of organic matter in sediment traps. In: Sediment trap studies in the Nordic countries 1, Proceedings of the Workshop “Use of sediment traps for studies of vertical flux of particulate matter in the sea”, Wassmann, P. & A.-S. Heiskanen (Eds.), Yliopistopaino, Finland.

Advisement of students

Vandermeulen, R.A. (M.S. thesis, 2012) Factors influencing the spatial and temporal distribution of primary productivity and community respiration in the Mississippi coastal estuarine region , Department of Marine Science, The University of Southern Mississippi

Burnett, P.F. (M.S. thesis, 2012) Effects of hypoxia on nitrogen fixation and removal in the Mississippi Bight , Department of Marine Science, The University of Southern Mississippi

Ren, S. (M.S. thesis, 2010) Molecular detection of marine N2 fixation by cyanobacteria in the Northern Gulf of Mexico , Department of Marine Science, The University of Southern Mississippi

Degerholm, J. (Ph.D. thesis, 2002) Ecophysiological characteristics of the Baltic Sea N2-fixing cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon and Nodularia , Department of Botany, Stockholm University

Rundqvist, C. (Licenciat thesis, 1999) Department of Botany, Stockholm University

Gøtfors, L. (Licenciat thesis, 1999) Department of Botany, Stockholm University

Faggrupper