Frode Oppedal

Telephone: 97166781
Department: Dyrevelferd

Arbeider med

Present focus as a professor scientist is on salmon welfare and how aquaculture farm conditions and management should be based on biological premises. Main research field focuses on sea cage environments, salmon behavioural responses, thresholds for coping and welfare in commercial, natural fluctuating and artificial settings.

KW: Animal welfare, fish welfare, salmon behaviour, cage environment, sexual maturation, growth, farm management, feeding, coping, environment, fish behaviour

Curriculum Vitae

  • Overton, K., Samsing, F., Oppedal, F., Stien L.H., Dempster, T., 2017. Lowering treatment temperature reduces salmon mortality: a new way to treat with hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture. Pest Management Science DOI: 10.1002/ps.4751
  • Bui, S., Oppedal, F., Samsing, F., Dempster, T., 2017a. Behaviour in Atlantic salmon confers protection against an ectoparasite. Journal of Zoology. doi:10.1111/jzo.12498
  • Bui, S., Dalvin, S., Skulstad, O.F., Wargelius, A., Dempster, T., Oppedal, F., 2017b. Susceptibility, behaviour, and retention of the parasitic salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) differ with Atlantic salmon population origin. Journal of Fish Diseases 2017;00:1–12.
  • Hvas, M., Oppedal, F., 2017c. Sustained swimming capacity of Atlantic salmon. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 9, 361-369.
  • Wright, D.W. Nowak, B., Oppedal, F., Bridle, A., Dempster, T., 2017b. Free-living Neoparamoeba perurans depth distribution is mostly uniform in salmon cages, but reshaped by stratification and potentially extreme fish crowding. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 9, 269-279.
  • Samsing, F., Johnsen I., Dempster, T., Oppedal, F., Treml, E.A., 2017. Network analysis reveals strong seasonality in the dispersal of a marine parasite and identifies areas for coordinated management. Landscape Ecology
  • Hansen, T.J., Fjelldal, P.G., Folkedal, O., Vågseth, T., Oppedal, F., 2017. Effects of light source and intensity on sexual maturation, growth and swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon in sea cages. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 9, 193-204
  • Hvas, M., Folkedal, O., Imsland, A., Oppedal, F., 2017b. The effect of thermal acclimation on aerobic scope and critical swimming speed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Journal of Experimental Biology 220, 2757-2764.
  • Wright, D.W. Stien, L.H., Dempster, T., Vågseth, T., Nola, V., Oppedal, F., 2017a. 'Snorkel' lice barrier technology reduced two co-occurring parasites, the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and the amoebic gill disease causing agent (Neoparamoeba perurans), in commercial salmon sea-cages. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 140, 97-105.
  • Oppedal, F., Samsing, F., Dempster, T., Wright, D.W., Bui, S., Stien, L.H., 2017. Sea lice infestation levels decrease with deeper ‘snorkel’ barriers in Atlantic salmon sea-cages. Pest Management Science 73, 1935-1943.
  • Oldham, T., Dempster, T., Fosse, J.O., Oppedal, F., 2017. Oxygen gradients affect behaviour of caged Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 9, 145-153
  • Hvas, M., Folkedal, O., Solstorm, D., Vågseth, T., Fosse, J.O., Gansel, L.C., Oppedal, F., 2017a. Assessing swimming capacity and schooling behaviour in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with experimental push-cages. Aquaculture 473, 423-429.
  • Remen, M., Solstorm, F., Bui, S., Klebert, P., Vågseth, T., Solstorm, D., Hvas, M., Oppedal, F., 2016. Critical swimming speed in groups of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 8, 659-664.
  • Remen, M., Sievers, M., Torgersen, T., Oppedal, F., 2016. The oxygen threshold for maximal feed intake of Atlantic salmon post-smolts is highly temperature-dependent. Aquaculture 464, 582-592
  • Bui, S., Oppedal, F., Stien, L.H., Dempster, T., 2016. Sea lice infestation level alters salmon swimming depth in sea-cages. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 8, 429-435
  • Samsing, F., Oppedal, F., Dalvin, S., Johnsen, I., Vågseth, T., Dempster, T., 2016. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) development times, body size and reproductive outputs follow universal models of temperature dependence. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 73, 1841-1851
  • Samsing, F., Johnsen I., Stien, L.H., Oppedal, F., Albretsen, J., Asplin, L., Dempster, T., 2016. Predicting the effectiveness of depth-based technologies to prevent salmon lice infection using a dispersal model. Prev. Vet. Med. 129, 48-57
  • Bui, S., Dempster, T., Remen, M., Oppedal, F., 2016. Effect of ectoparasite infestation density and life-history stages on the swimming performance of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 8, 387-395
  • Solstorm, F., Solstorm, D., Oppedal, F., Fjelldal, P.G., 2016. The vertebral column and exercise in Atlantic salmon – regional effects. Aquaculture 461, 9-16
  • Wright, D.W., Oppedal, F., Dempster, T., 2016. Early-stage sea lice recruits on Atlantic salmon are freshwater-sensitive. Journal of Fish Diseases 39, 1179–1186.
  • Stien, L.H., Dempster, T., Bui, S., Glaropoulos, A., Fosseidengen, J.E., Wright, D., Oppedal, F., 2016. ‘Snorkel’ sea lice barrier technology reduces sea lice loads on harvest-sized Atlantic salmon with minimal welfare impacts. Aquaculture 458, 29-37.
  • Solstorm, F., Solstorm, D., Oppedal, F., Olsen, R.E., Stien, L.H., Fernö, A., 2016. Not too slow, not too fast: water currents affect group structure, aggression and welfare in post-smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 8, 339-347.
  • Bjelland, H., Kristiansen, D., Holmen, IM, Fredheim, A., Esten, I., Dariusz, EF., Oppedal, F., Utne, I., Schjølberg, I., 2015. Exposed Aquaculture in Norway. OCEANS 2015-MTS/IEEE Washington, 1-10.
  • Solstorm, F., Solstorm, D., Oppedal, F., Fernö, A., Fraser, T.W.K., Olsen, R.E., 2015. Fast water currents reduce production performance of postsmolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 7, 125-134.
  • Remen, M., Nederlof, M.A.J., Folkedal, O., Thorsheim, G., Sitjà-Bobadilla, A., Pérez-Sánchez, J., Oppedal, F., Olsen, R.E., 2015. Effect of temperature on the metabolism, behaviour and oxygen requirements of Sparus aurata. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 7, 115-123
  • Wright, D.W., Glaropoulos, A., Solstorm, D., Stien, L.H., Oppedal, F., 2015. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar instantaneously follow vertical light movements in sea cages. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 7, 61-65.
  • Samsing, F., Oppedal, F., Solstorm, D., Solstorm, F., Dempster, T., 2015. Gone with the flow: current velocities mediate parasitic infestation of an aquatic host. International Journal for Parasitology 45, 559-565
  • Wright, D.W., Nowak, B., Oppedal, F., Bridle, A., Dempster, T., 2015. Depth distribution of the amoebic gill disease agent, Neoparamoeba perurans, in salmon sea-cages. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 7, 67-74.
  • Hansen, T.J., Olsen, R.E., Stien, L., Oppedal, F., Torgersen, T., Breck, O., Remen, M., Vågseth, T., Fjelldal, P.G., 2015. Effect of water oxygen level on performance of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon post-smolts reared at high temperature. Aquaculture 435, 354-360
  • Samsing, F., Oppedal, F., Johansson, D., Bui, S., Dempster, T., 2014. High host densities dilute sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis loads on individual Atlantic salmon, but do not reduce lice infection success. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 6, 81-89
  • Gansel, L., Rackebrandt, S., Oppedal, F., McClimans, T.A., 2014. Flow fields inside stocked fish cages and the near environment. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering 136, 031201/1-8
  • Stien, L., Fosseidengen, J.E., Malm, M., Sveier, H., Torgersen, T., Wright, D.W., Oppedal, F., 2014. Low intensity light of different colours modifies Atlantic salmon depth use. Aquacultural Engineering 62, 42-48.
  • Fraser, T.W.K., Fjelldal, P.G., Hansen, T.J., Oppedal, F., Olsen, R.E., Vågseth, T., Remen, M., 2014. Aplasia of the septum transversum has no effect on plasma biochemistry following an acute hypoxic event in Atlantic salmon. Diseases of Aquatic Organism 111, 87-92
  • Johansson, D., Laursen, F., Fernö, A., Fosseidengen, J.E., Klebert, P., Stien, L.H., Vågseth, T., Oppedal, F., 2014. The interaction between water currents and salmon swimming behaviour in sea cages. PLoS ONE 9(5): e97635. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097635
  • Frenzl, B., Stien, L.H., Cockerill, D., Oppedal F., Richards, R.H., Shinn, A.P., Bron, J.E., Migaud, H. 2014. Manipulation of farmed Atlantic salmon swimming behaviour through the adjustment of lighting and feeding regimes as a tool for salmon lice control. Aquaculture 424-425, 183-188.
  • Remen, M., Aas, T.S., Vågseth, T., Torgersen, T., Olsen, R.E., Imsland, A.K., Oppedal, F., 2014. Production performance of Atlantic salmon post-smolts in cyclic hypoxia and following compensatory growth. Aquaculture Research 45, 1355-1366 doi:10.1111/are.12082.
  • Remen, M., Oppedal, F., Imsland, A., Olsen, R.E., Torgersen, T., 2013. Hypoxia tolerance thresholds for post-smolt Atlantic salmon: Dependency of temperature and hypoxia acclimation. Aquaculture 416, 41-47.
  • Korsøen, Ø.J., Fosseidengen, J.E., Oppedal, F., Stien, L.H., Karlsen, Ø., Kristiansen, T.S., Dempster, T., 2013. Towards cod without spawning: artificial continuous light in submerged sea-cages maintains growth and delays sexual maturation for farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 3, 245-255.
  • Nilsson, J., Folkedal, O., Fosseidengen, J.E., Stien, L.H., Oppedal, F. 2013. PIT tagged individual Atlantic salmon registered at static depth positions in a sea cage: Vertical size stratification and implications for fish sampling. Aquacult. Eng. 55, 32-36.
  • Bui, S., Oppedal, F., Korsøen, Ø.J., Sonny, D., Dempster, T., 2013. Group behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to light, infrasound and sound stimuli. PLOS ONE 8(5): e63696. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063696
  • Føre, M., Dempster, T., Alfredsen, J.A., Oppedal, F. 2013. Modelling of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) behaviour in sea-cages: Using artificial light to control swimming depth. Aquaculture 388-391, 137-146
  • Bui, S., Oppedal, F., Korsøen, Ø.J., Sonny, D., Dempster, T., 2013. Modifying Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) behaviour to facilitate parasite control techniques: applying light or feed during submergence increases surface behaviours. Aquacult. Environ. Interact. 3, 125-133
  • Klebert,  P., Gansel, L.,  Lader, P., Oppedal, F., 2013. Flow hydrodynamics through nets and floating cages: a review. Ocean Engineering 58, 260-274.
  • Papandroulakis, N., Lika, K., Kristiansen, T., Oppedal, F., Divanach, P., Pavlidis, M., 2013. Behaviour of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., in cages - impact of early life rearing conditions and management. Aquacult. Res. 45, 1545-1558
  • Stien, L., Bracke, M., Folkedal, O., Nilsson, J., Oppedal, F., Torgersen, T., Kittilsen, S., Midtlyng, P., Øverli, Ø., Kristiansen, T., 2013. Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0): a semantic model for overall welfare assessment of caged Atlantic salmon: review of the selected welfare indicators and model presentation. Reviews in Aquaculture 5, 33-57
  • Skulstad, O.F., Karlsen, Ø., Fosseidengen, J.E., Kristiansen, T., Taranger, G.L. and Oppedal, F., 2013. Vertical distribution and sexual maturation in cage-farming of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) exposed to natural or continuous light. Aquaculture Research 44, 903-917.
  • Stien, L. H., Nilsson, J., Oppedal, F., Kristiansen, T.S., Lien, A.M., Folkedal, O. 2012. Skirt around a salmon sea cage to reduce infestation of salmon lice resulted in low oxygen levels. Aquacultural Engineering 51, 21-25.
  • Olsen, R.E., Oppedal, F., Tenningen, M., Vold, A., 2012. Scale loss may be a contributing factor to mortality experienced of herring after slipping from purse seines. Fisheries Research 129-130, 21-27.
  • Korsøen, Ø., Fosseidengen, J.E., Kristiansen, T.S., Oppedal, F., Bui, S., Dempster, T., 2012b. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a submerged sea-cage adapt rapidly to re-fill their swim bladders in an underwater air filled dome. Aquacult. Eng. 51, 1-6.
  • Folkedal, O., Stien, L.H. Nilsson, J., Torgersen, T., Fosseidengen, J.E., Oppedal, F., 2012c. Sea caged Atlantic salmon display size-dependent swimming depth. Aquatic Living Resources 25, 143-149.
  • Korsøen, Ø.J., Dempster, T., Oppedal, F., Kristiansen, T.S., 2012a. Individual variation in swimming depth and growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) subjected to submergence in sea-cage. Aquaculture 334-337, 142–151.
  • Remen, M., Oppedal, F., Torgersen, T., Imsland, A., Olsen, R.E., 2012. Effects of cyclic environmental hypoxia on physiology and feed intake of post-smolt Atlantic salmon: Initial response and acclimation. Aquaculture 326-329, 148-155.
  • Folkedal, O., Stien, L.H., Torgersen, T., Oppedal, F., Olsen, R.E., Fosseidengen, J.E., Braithwaite, V., Kristiansen, T.S., 2012b. Food anticipatory behaviour as an indicator of stress response and recovery in Atlantic salmon post-smolt after exposure to acute temperature fluctuation. Physiology and Behaviour 105, 350-356
  • Folkedal, O., Torgersen, T., Olsen, R.E., Fernö, A., Nilsson, J., Oppedal, F., Stien, L.H., Kristiansen, T.S., 2012a. Duration of effects of acute environmental changes on food anticipatory behaviour, feed intake, oxygen consumption, and cortisol release in Atlantic salmon parr. Physiology and Behaviour 105, 283-291
  • Dempster, T., Kristiansen, T.S., Korsøen, Ø.J., Fosseidengen, J.E., Oppedal, F., 2011. Technical note: Modifying Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) behaviour to facilitate innovation of parasitic sea lice control techniques. J. Animal Sci. 89, 4281-4285
  • Oppedal, F., Vågseth., T., Dempster, T., Juell, J.E., Johansson, D., 2011b. Stocking density affects seasonal variation in observed swimming density of caged Atlantic salmon measured by echo sounders. Aquaculture 315, 361-368.
  • Oppedal, F., Dempster, T., Stien, L., 2011a. Environmental drivers of Atlantic salmon behaviour in sea-cages: a review. Aquaculture 311, 1-18.
  • Folkedal., O., Torgersen, T., Nilsson, J., Oppedal, F., 2010. Habituation rate and capacity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr to sudden transitions from darkness to light. Aquaculture 307, 170-172.
  • Bratland, S., Stien. L.H., Braithwaite, V., Juell, J-E., Folkedal, O., Nilsson, J., Oppedal, F., Kristiansen, T.S. 2010. From fright to anticipation: Using aversive light stimuli to investigate reward conditioning in large groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture International 18, 991-1001.
  • Korsøen Ø., Dempster, T., Fjelldal P.G., Oppedal F., Kristiansen, T., 2009. Long-term culture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in submerged cages during winter affects behaviour, growth and condition. Aquaculture 296, 373-381.
  • Johansson, D., Ruohonen, K., Juell, J-E. and Oppedal, F., 2009. Swimming depth and thermal history of individual Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in production cages under different ambient temperature conditions. Aquaculture 290, 296-303.
  • Dempster, T., Korsøen, Ø., Folkedal, O., Juell, J-E. and Oppedal, F., 2009. Submergence of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in commercial scale sea-cages: a potential short-term solution to poor surface conditions. Aquaculture 288, 254-263.
  • Rungruangsak-Torrissen, K., Sunde, J., Berg A.E., Nordgarden, U., Fjelldal P.G., and Oppedal, F., 2009. Digestive efficiency, free amino acid pools and quality of growth performance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected by light regimes and vaccine types. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 35, 255-272.
  • Stien, L.H., Bratland, S., Austevoll, I., Oppedal, F. and Kristiansen, T.S., 2007. A video analysis procedure for assessing vertical fish distribution in aquaculture tanks. Aquacultural Engineering 37, 115-124.
  • Oppedal, F., Juell, J.-E. and Johansson, D., 2007. Thermo- and photoregulatory swimming behaviour of caged Atlantic salmon: Implications for photoperiod management and fish welfare. Aquaculture 265, 70-81.
  • Johansson, D., Juell, J.-E., Oppedal, F., Stiansen J.E. and Ruohonen, K., 2007. The influence of the pycnocline and cage resistance on current flow, oxygen flux and swimming behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in production cages. Aquaculture 265, 271-287.
  • Johansson, D., Ruohonen., K., Kiessling, D., Oppedal, F., Stiansen, J.E., Kelly, M., and Juell, J-.E., 2006. Effect of environmental factors on swimming depth preferences of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and temporal and spatial variations in oxygen levels in sea cages at a fjord site. Aquaculture 254, 594-605.
  • Oppedal, F., Berg, A., Olsen, R.E., Taranger, G.L., and Hansen, T., 2006. Photoperiod in seawater influence seasonal growth and chemical composition in autumn sea-transferred Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) given two vaccines. Aquaculture 254, 396-410.
  • Knudsen, F.R., Fosseidengen, J.E., Oppedal, F., Karlsen, Ø and Ona, E., 2004. Hydroacustic monitoring of fish in sea cages; target strength (TS) measurements on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fisheries Research 69, 205-209.
  • Nordgarden, U., Oppedal, F., Taranger G.L., Hemre, G.-I. and Hansen, T., 2003. Seasonally changing metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) I – Growth and feed conversion ratio. Aquaculture Nutrition 9, 287-293.
  • Juell, J.-E., Oppedal, F., Boxaspen, K. and Taranger G.L., 2003. Submerged light increases swimming depth and reduces fish density of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in production cages. Aquaculture Research 34, 469-477.
  • Hevrøy, E.M., Boxaspen, K., Oppedal, F., Taranger G.L. and Holm, J.C., 2003. The effect of artificial light treatment and depth on the infestation of the sea louse L. salmonis on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) culture. Aquaculture 220, 1-14.
  • Oppedal, F., Taranger, G.L, Hansen, T. 2003. Growth performance and sexual maturation in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in seawater tanks exposed to continuous light or natural photoperiod. Aquaculture 215, 145-162.
  • Oppedal, F., Juell, J.E, Taranger, G.L. and Hansen, T., 2001. Artificial light and season affect vertical distribution and swimming behaviour of post-smolt Atlantic salmon in sea cages. Journal of Fish Biology 58, 1570-1584.
  • Oppedal, F., Taranger, G.L., Juell, J.E. and Hansen, T., 1999. Growth, osmoregulation and sexual maturation of underyearling Atlantic salmon smolt (Salmo salar L.) exposed to different intensities of continuous light in sea cages. Aquaculture Research 30, 491-499.
  • Oppedal, F., Taranger, G.L., Juell, J.E, Fosseidengen, J.E. and Hansen, T., 1997. Light intensity affects growth and sexual maturation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) postsmolts in sea cages.  Aquatic Living Resources 10, 351-357.



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